“Do Not Get Drunk; Be Filled with the Spirit” Today’s Alcoholic Beverages are Condemned by Scripture
INTRODUCTION What is the Meaning of Ephesians 5.18
Ephesians chapter 5 and we will look at one verse today. Let’s read the context of this verse in Ephesians 5:15-21 15 Therefore be careful how you walk, not as unwise men but as wise, 16 making the most of your time, because the days are evil. 17 So then do not be foolish, but understand what the will of the Lord is. 18 And do not get drunk with wine, for that is dissipation, but be filled with the Spirit, 19 speaking to one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody with your heart to the Lord; 20 always giving thanks for all things in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ to God, even the Father; 21 and be subject to one another in the fear of Christ.
Our verse today is Ephesians 5:18 And do not get drunk with wine, for that is dissipation, but be filled with the Spirit,
And most of the message this morning will be a discussion on alcohol.
Let me first talk about where this fits in the context of the book of Ephesians. Please recall that beginning in Ephesians 4, Paul applies the gospel to our daily lives. Not too long after beginning chapter 4, Paul draws a sharp contrast [*left hand*] between behavior that describes unbelievers and [*right hand*] behavior that describes God’s people. Paul’s point is that there must be a difference. And so, there must be a difference between how godly people view alcohol and how ungodly people view alcohol.
There is a movement of sorts among people in churches today who say that alcohol needs to be redeemed. Church websites like “what would Jesus brew” and churches hosting theology discussions at the local pub are just some of the activities promoting the redemption of the Christian’s use of alcohol.
So, shall we drink modern wine because Jesus turned water into wine and because Paul told Timothy to drink a little wine for his stomach’s sake?
What we will get to these things, but first let’s explain Ephesians 5:18 briefly. To begin with, this verse caught us by surprise. We weren’t expecting it after the passage last time about redeeming the time. We go from time redemption to a discussion of drunkenness.
We said last time that a Christian ought to be careful to redeem the time in light of God’s plan of redemption. And so now in v. 18, spending that time in drunkenness is entirely ungodly.
So, this kind of caught us by surprise. Secondly, it caught us by surprise because of the contrast within the verse. Ephesians 5:18 And do not get drunk with wine, for that is dissipation, but […now instead of drunkenness …] be filled with the Spirit,
Yes, this is a perfect contrast, although it doesn’t seem like it to us. And we will see that it is a matter of control. At any moment, either alcohol is in control or the Holy Spirit is in control. And you will see that as we go through this.
TRANS: So first from verse 18, do not get drunk.
Don’t Get Drunk
Meaning of Drunkenness
What does it mean to be drunk? This word for “drunk” is very simple, it means intoxication. It refers to someone who is no longer in control of themselves.
Someone who experiences a degree of drunkenness is experiencing a degree of a lack of self-control.
Thus, if we bring the previous verses to bear on this …. someone who is drunk is somebody who fails to comprehend the will of the Lord, and is not living wisely, and is not living carefully. He is foolish and is not redeeming time in a way that pleases the Lord. Ephesians 5:15-18 15 Therefore be careful how you walk, not as unwise men but as wise, 16 making the most of your time, because the days are evil. 17 So then do not be foolish, but understand what the will of the Lord is. 18 And [so] do not get drunk with wine, for that is dissipation, but be filled with the Spirit,
TRANS: So, don’t get drunk….don’t be under the control of alcohol at any moment.
What is “wine?”
And I will skip the meaning of “wine” for now and come back to that in our discussion of alcohol.
What comes along with drunkenness: It leads to recklessness
Now, what comes along with drunkenness? Is it a sin by itself? Ephesians 5:18 And do not get drunk with wine, for that is dissipation,
That phrase, “for that is dissipation” can be translated “in which is dissipation.” And we can understand that better this way “it leads to dissipation.” Drunkenness leads to dissipation.
And the word “dissipation” has the idea of “recklessness.” So the understanding here is that drunkenness leads to reckless behavior. And reckless behavior would include things like immorality and just general poor judgment on things. Somebody who lives recklessly is somebody who is on his way to ruining his life. He might squander his money to gain pleasure.
This word dissipation describes the prodigal son in Luke 15:13. You remember that rebellious son that was in Jesus’ parable that was directed at those Pharisees. And in the story, the younger son returns and his father brings him a ring, a robe, and kills the fatted calf. And this younger son, though he was rebellious, repents. And it is meant to picture trusting in God for salvation. And that’s the idea.
Jesus says of this prodigal son Luke 15:13 “And not many days later, the younger son gathered everything together and went on a journey into a distant country, and there he squandered his estate with loose living.”
And that word “loose living” is the adverb of the noun of Ephesians 5:18 “dissipation.” Those words look similar and are from the same word.
So do not get drunk with wine … Because it leads to reckless behavior.
TRANS: Now, instead of getting drunk, we are to be filled with the Holy Spirit.
Be Filled with the Holy Spirit
Ephesians 5:18 And do not get drunk with wine, for [it leads to reckless living], but be filled with the Spirit
Now, just for the sake of clarification, we are not told here to be indwelt by the Holy Spirit. We’re also not told here to be baptized with the Holy Spirit. Both of those happened at salvation.
1 Corinthians 6:19 teaches us that each believer is indwelt by the Holy Spirit of God. And 1 Corinthians 12:13 teaches that at salvation, Jesus Christ baptized us with the Holy Spirit and that this baptizing places us into the body of Christ. Both of these things happened that salvation. And Ephesians 1 teaches us that at salvation, we are sealed with the Holy Spirit and that he is given to us as a pledge of our inheritance.
So Ephesians 5:18 is not telling us to be indwelt by the Holy Spirit or to be baptized with the Holy Spirit or to be sealed with the Holy Spirit. These things all happen at salvation.
However, Ephesians 5:18 does tell us to be filled by the Holy Spirit.
Now, to clarify the meaning here, it does not mean to be filled like a cup. Typically we think of the word “fill” to refer to filling a cup with water. So don’t think of this verse like we are the cup and the Holy Spirit is the water. And the Holy Spirit is filled up in us like water is filled up in a cup. That’s not the picture here.
When it’s worded like it is here “filled with the Spirit” It’s better to understand this as, “Filled by the Spirit” not with the Spirit. And worded that way, we really don’t know from this passage itself what we are to be filled up with. “Filled by the Spirit” with what?
The answer can be found in one of two ways. You could reference Ephesians 1:23 and Ephesians 3:19. And that will lead you to the same conclusion as the second way. The second way is to simply to turn over to Colossians 3:16.
Keep a hand here and turn two books over to Colossians 3:16. And here we will read what it is that fills us. We are filled by the Spirit, but what or who is it that fills us? Colossians 3:16 Let the word of Christ richly dwell within you, with all wisdom teaching and admonishing one another with psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing with thankfulness in your hearts to God.
And if you quickly flip back to Ephesians 5:18 you can see the similarity between the verses. Ephesians 5:18-19 18 And do not get drunk with wine, for that is dissipation, but be filled with the Spirit, 19 speaking to one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody with your heart to the Lord;
Both verses talk about speaking to one another with psalms and hymns, and spiritual songs.
And so to be filled by the Holy Spirit in Ephesians means that the Holy Spirit fills us with Christ and His word. The Holy Spirit fills us with Christ and His word. That’s the point. And His word is the message of Christ in redemption. We are to be filled with the message of the gospel of Christ, His redemption… that he died, that he was buried, and that he rose again and for all who trust in him and hate their own wicked ways and flee to Christ for salvation are saved. And as well, all those glorious benefits of being a child of God …. Christ and all these things should fill us up. And it is the Holy Spirit who fills us. “Be filled by the Holy Spirit.”
Well, what does that mean that Christ and His glorious redemptive message fill us? It means that Christ and His glorious redemptive message should control us.
The contrast in verse gives us this understanding. The contrast between not being drunk with wine and being filled by the Holy Spirit gives us the understanding of control.
Don’t allow yourself to be [*left hand*] controlled by alcohol. Instead, be controlled by the Holy Spirit. If you fill yourself with alcohol your life will have the fruit of that. Your life will have reckless behavior in it. But, if the Holy Spirit fills you with Christ and his word, your life will have in it the fruit of the Spirit. You will have Galatians 5:22-23 22 love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, 23 gentleness, self-control;
And also if the Holy Spirit fills you with the word of Christ, not only will you exhibit the fruit of the Spirit, you also exhibit the “ing” words of the rest of this passage in Ephesians 5. Look at Ephesians 5:18-21 18 And do not get drunk with wine, for [it leads to reckless behavior], but be filled [by] the Spirit, 19 [now…here are some evidences of being filled by the Spirit] speaking to one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody with your heart to the Lord; 20 always giving thanks for all things in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ to God, even the Father; 21 and [literally … being] subject to one another in the fear of Christ.
Speaking, singing, making melody, giving thanks, and being subject are all evidences of being filled by the Holy Spirit. If the Holy Spirit is filling you with Christ and His glorious redemptive message, you will be actively consciously doing those 5 things.
And to be filled by the Holy Spirit the way it’s worded here he gives us the understanding that this is a continuous command. You are always to be filled with Christ by the Holy Spirit.
And to do this requires that you, all the time, surrender the entirety of who you are and what you doing to him…to his control. Ask him for this.
And the last evidence of Spirit-filling in Ephesians 5 that we mentioned was about being subject to one another. To submit to one another. If we submit ourselves to each other, that’s an evidence that we are in right relation to the Holy Spirit. Take that word submit and bring it in to an understanding of our relationship to the Spirit. The word “submit” helps us understand our relationship to the Holy Spirit. Submit yourself to Him.
If he is filling you with Christ and his word, you are submitting yourself to him. You are always to be submitting yourself to the Holy Spirit’s filling of you with Christ and his word. Always submit yourself to the Holy Spirit’s filling with Christ. And submit everything about you to Him.
Someone who is controlled by the Holy Spirit will be submitted to Christ and His message of redemption and will always be seeking to grow in Christ likeness.
Now the issue of alcohol…
Now, I’d like to take the rest of our time this morning and address the issue of Christians and alcohol.
Let me first state the problem out right. And this is where your handout comes in “Does The Bible Allow Us to Consume Alcoholic Drinks As Beverages?” and Part 1 should be at the top.
The Problem Stated
What we’re not talking about when it concerns a Christian’s use of alcohol is a medicinal use. That’s not a problem question. No, what we’re asking is this: “Does the Bible allow us to consume alcoholic drinks as beverages?” “Does the Bible allow us to consume alcoholic drinks as beverages?”
TRANS: Now, let me explain why this is a difficult problem.
Why It’s A Difficult Problem.
The Bible Speaks Positively of “Wine”
The Scripture does talk about wine and other alcoholic beverages positively.
For example, Genesis 14:18 refers to Melchizedek offering wine to Abraham. Nehemiah was required to taste wine before allowing the king to drink it, Nehemiah 2:1. That was his job as cupbearer. Job was the most righteous man in all the earth, yet he at least allowed his family to drink wine (Job 1:13).
Psalms 104:15 tells us that “wine makes a man’s heart glad.” And the point in the context is that this is a gift from God.
So the Scripture, in many ways, speaks positively of beverages that have alcohol in them.
But as we well know, drunkenness from those beverages is a menace to society.
But Drunkenness is a Menace to Society
There are plenty of negative statistics out there about alcohol: from drunk driving, to spousal abuse, to fetal alcohol syndrome, to cancer and the like.
Some Cultures Say It’s Ok To Drink
But another problem is that there are many cultures around the globe that say that drinking is socially acceptable, even among those bearing the name of Christ.
And still others, despite the negativity surrounding alcohol, claim that it is their Christian liberty to drink alcohol.
TRANS: So how are we to sort through this difficult issue? First, let’s briefly deal with agreed upon facts. And remember we’re trying to get the answer to this question “Does the Bible allow us to consume alcoholic drinks as beverages?”
First, like I mentioned, everybody understands that alcohol is used medicinally in the Bible. In 1 Timothy 5:23, Paul advises Timothy to take a little wine for his stomach’s sake and his frequent ailments. It also was used to sooth wounds and to prevent infection, like in the story of the good Samaritan in Luke 10:34. And to the one who is dying, he is allowed to drink strong drink (Prov. 31:6).
So there are medicinal uses to alcohol. Everyone agrees to that. Everyone also agrees that drunkenness is sin. Deuteronomy 21:20-21 teaches parents under the old covenant that if there son refuses to obey him, that he is a glutton and a drunkard, then they are to submit him to the men of the city and they shall stone him to death. 1 Corinthians 5:11 teaches that believers ought not associate with a so-called brother who is a drunkard. 1 Corinthians 6:9-10 teaches that drunkards will not inherit the kingdom of God. These are strong warnings!
And so everyone agrees, that being drunk is sin. So both sides can agree that alcohol can be used medicinally and that drunkenness is sin.
TRANS: So there is nothing controversial yet. Beyond this is where people get confused. Let me first alleviate some misconceptions.
All wine mentioned in the Bible does in fact have alcohol in it. Jesus turned water into wine. The wine that Jesus miraculously created from water had alcohol in it. During that first Lord’s Supper, Jesus and the disciples partook of wine that had alcohol in it.
And so all beverages mentioned that would seem to indicate by their very word, had alcohol in it. Wine, new wine, strong drink … all these words indicate that they had alcohol in it. “New wine” had alcohol in it (Hos. 4:11; Acts 2:13). Those informed agree on this.
“Strong drink” does not refer to the amount of alcohol in the drink itself. I have seen no evidence for this view. The strength of the drink refers to the flavor of it. “Strong drink” is an alcoholic drink that was made out of another fruit other than the grapes or it was made out of grains. And because of what biblical wine is, which we’ll get to, “strong drink” refers to the strength of the flavor used. There is consensus on this point: The New International Version translates this “other fermented drink” and the New English Translation translates it “beer.” And beer, naturally, has less alcohol than does wine.
So, those are various misconceptions. All alcoholic beverages as indicated by the word used in the Bible are, in fact, alcoholic and are properly translated. And strong drink refers to other fermented beverages, other than those made by grapes.
But, our study as to what exactly these things are is not finished yet. There is a difference between ancient wine and modern wine. First, let me give some additional facts about wine in Bible times.
Facts About Wine in Bible Times
To make wine in the ancient world required getting inside and stomping on grapes in a large vat, or a drum. And that drum was connected to another, smaller drum below it by a channel. And as you stopped on the grapes in the large drum, the sugar in the juice would mix with the yeast from the skin of those grapes and be collected in the small drum beneath it. That was then collected into other jars or wineskins.
And in these ancient days, the result would be a maximum of 7% alcohol, which is considered a weak wine today.
Now, here’s a key point: After collecting the wine and before drinking, the wine was diluted with water. Diluting it with water makes it less intoxicating. Even the pagan Greeks diluted their wine in what’s called a krater. A krater was a large vessel on a tripod in a dining room. It’s sole purpose was to mix wine with water. And in ancient times, the dilution would be anywhere from 2 to 20 times, with likely an average of three or four times. In other words, for every ounce of wine you would add 3 or 4 ounces of water. The Jews would do this too, of course. This is biblical wine. Biblical wine is diluted with water for the very purpose of making it less intoxicating.
Jewish Talmud: Passover wine was 3 parts water to 1 part of wine (…and you have the reference there in your handout…Pesahim 108a cf. Shabbath 77a)
Intertestamental Period: From 2 Mac 15…it’s not Scripture, but it is a historical reference….“For as it is hurtful to drink wine or water alone; …wine mingled with water is pleasant, and delighteth the taste…” (2 Mac. 15:39).
From a translation from Babylonian Talmud, the Steinsaltz edition … “On the other hand, in places where it is customary for merchants to add water the wine before selling it, it is permitted for them to add water and then sell the wine without warning their customers, for the customers naturally assume that the wine has been diluted.”
Charles Hodge, quoting his ancient sources writes … “It was the general practice of the Jews to dilute their wine with water. [quote] ‘Their wine was very strong,’ says an ancient Jewish writer, ‘and not fit for drinking unless water was mixed with it.’”
TRANS: the Pagans themselves did this, too …
Pliny the Elder (a first century Roman author, naturalist, and natural philosopher) referred to wine as eight parts water and one part wine.
Athenaeus (a Greek rhetorician end of the 2nd century, early 3rd century) writes, “Mnesitheus [Nesithus] said that the gods had revealed wine to mortals, to be the greatest blessing for those who use it aright, but for those who use it without measure, the reverse [reverse of a blessing, is the idea]. For it gives food to them that take it, and strength in mind and body. In medicine it is most beneficial; it can be mixed with liquid drugs and it brings aid to the wounded. In daily intercourse, to those who mix and drink it moderately, it gives good cheer; But if you overstep the bounds, it brings violence. Mix it half and half [with water, he says … ], and you get madness; unmixed, bodily collapse.” Which would likely be passing out.
And two writers on the ancient world wrote, “Only barbarians drank undiluted wine.”
Imagine the pagan Romans and Greeks calling Christians barbarians! That’s not a good testimony!
So why did they drink wine? They drank it for the flavor and to make water safe. Well water, even in ancient times, wasn’t always safe to drink. It could have harmful bacteria in it that could make you sick. And the ancients were concerned about the dangers of undiluted wine, for various other reasons. Therefore, to become intoxicated on diluted wine required drinking many more times the amount of alcohol than you do today. One has suggested up to a gallon; another suggested 22 glasses.
So, the ancients drank wine diluted with water to make drinking water and wine safe, for various reasons.
Facts About Wine Today
Now, what about today? In Bible times, they sought to reduce the alcoholic content. Today, they seek to increase it. See the difference? Standard wine today has 14% alcohol, double of even undiluted wine in Bible times. Like I said, undiluted wine in Bible times is half the amount that’s in a standard wine today. If you search google for 7% alcohol wine, you’ll see that’s weak wine. The ancients diluted by as much as 8 times what we would call weak wine.
It is well known that our culture drinks undiluted alcoholic beverages primarily for its intoxicating, debilitating effect.
TRANS: Now, I think you can see where I’m going. I take the abstinence position so let me give arguments for abstaining from alcohol. I teach that believers ought not drink alcoholic beverages.
Arguments for Abstinence
We don’t need alcoholic beverages.
The ancients needed alcohol, for health reasons. It killed bacteria in the drinking water. And when they did drink it, they watered it down so as not to become drunk. We have safe drinking water. Therefore, we should not drink today’s modern alcoholic beverages.
The Bible warns even about diluted wine.
Remember, biblical wine is diluted wine.
Isa. 28:7 describes those who are confused from having been drunk on diluted wine. Hos. 4:11 describes how it takes away the understanding. Prov. 31:7 teaches it causes forgetfulness and a loss of control (Job 12:25; Isa 28:7–8; 29:9). If the Bible warns us this way about diluted wine, how much more undiluted wine?
Modern alcohol consumption is not healthy.
Alcohol consumption is a leading preventable cause of death in the US, experts say. It is a major contributor to cancer deaths, according to the Boston University School of Public Health.
Consuming alcohol is a bad example.
Think of the home. Children follow what their parents do.  And children today are growing up in a different day than we did. And if the parents want their rum, today’s kids will want their marijuana, and whatever else. So what’s the difference? You have your debilitating, mind controlling drug and they want theirs! It’s not a good example.
Alcohol does not edify
As a local New Testament church, we are to put a high priority on edification. Does modern alcohol really edify? Doesn’t actually help? 1 Corinthians 6:12 All things are lawful for me, but not all things are profitable. All things are lawful for me, but I will not be mastered by anything.
Romans 14:21 It is good not to … drink wine, or to do anything by which your brother stumbles.
If someone who is weak in the faith knew that you “drank in moderation,” could that embolden him to drink? And that’s not just drinking in public or in front of them, but if they knew that you drank, could that embolden one who is weak in the faith to drink? Yes! And I’ve heard 1 to many stories of this happening.
Studies show that small amounts of alcohol causes lack of self control.
One study says that even a small amount of alcohol affects driving. Another study finds that small amounts of alcohol dulls the brain “signal” that warns people when they are making a mistake, ultimately reducing self-control. Self-control is affected, therefore, from even a small amount of alcohol. And why would I want to drink something that keeps me from displaying one of the fruits of the Spirit, self-control (Ga. 5:22)?
Drinking undiluted alcoholic beverages is simply forbidden by Scripture.
Turn over to Proverbs 23:29-35. The book of Proverbs is all about wisdom. What is wise? In this passage, we have an actual command. Derek Kidner’s commentary on Proverbs is one of the most excellent out there and he says that Proverbs 23:29-35 is a [quote] .. .“unforgettable study of the drunkard.” A.B. Rich back in 1880 writing for Bibliotheca Sacra journal, which is still publish today, …Rich said of this passage, it is “one of the most impressive warnings against the use of alcoholic wine that were ever written.”
So, let’s read Proverbs 23:29-35 29 Who has woe? Who has sorrow? Who has contentions? Who has complaining? Who has wounds without cause? Who has redness of eyes? 30 [answer …] Those who linger long over wine, Those who go to taste mixed wine [mixed wine is stronger wine than normal]. 31 [Now, with that in mind …verse 31…] do not look on the wine when it is red, When it sparkles in the cup, When it goes down smoothly; 32 At the last it bites like a serpent And stings like a viper. 33 Your eyes will see strange things And your mind will utter perverse things. 34 And you will be like one who lies down in the middle of the sea, Or like one who lies down on the top of a mast. 35 “They struck me, but I did not become ill; They beat me, but I did not know it. When shall I awake? I will seek another drink.”
Notice especially verse 31. Proverbs 23:31 Do not look on the wine when it is red…
If you were to dilute wine, what color would it be? Would it be red? Here is a prohibition against drinking undiluted wine. “Don’t look on the wine when it is red” … That is, when it is undiluted. Don’t even look at it! I know of no other way to take this then to take it as a prohibition against drinking wine with its full red color, stronger wine like ancient mixed wine. And of course the color is not the problem, it’s the alcohol content in it.
So Proverbs 23:31 is a prohibition against drinking undiluted alcoholic beverages.
TRANS: Now, let me briefly refute even moderate, modern alcohol consumption as a beverage.
Refuting arguments for moderate alcohol consumption as a beverage
“The Bible condemns drunkenness, not drinking modern alcohol.”
That’s not true, Prov. 23:31.
“Condemning moderate alcohol consumption as a beverage is legalistic.”
Not true, Prov. 23:31 condemns any undiluted alcohol consumption itself (“red” means it’s undiluted). It’s wrong just like another sin is wrong. Legalism is an attempt at earning favor with God through works, but choosing not to sin is not legalism, it’s obedience.
But somebody says …
“But the Bible teaches moderation, not abstinence” (1 Ti. 3:8; 5:23)
Yes, but only if it’s diluted. If someone drinks diluted wine to purify drinking water, for a medicinal use, or to make water taste better, this is biblical…if it’s diluted. This kind of diluted wine for these purposes must be used in moderation. But to drink undiluted wine for its effect is prohibited (Prov. 23:31).
“But I’ve heard moderate consumption is good for your heart.”
Actually, as we noted, it is a major contributor to cancer deaths and more recent research from the British Medical Journal suggests moderate consumption is not good for your heart. But even if there is a link, no one has proved that alcohol itself causes a health benefit.
“But it’s part of my culture” or “I feel like I have to fit in.”
If _____ was necessary to “fit in,” would you do _____? Will you choose to live in the culture of Scripture?
“But it helps me relax!”
Try running, herbal teas (that don’t control you) …oh, and Phil. 4:6-7! Don’t go to something else for peace; go to God.
But Martin Luther and Calvin drank!
Martin Luther also baptized babies and John Calvin agreed to executing heretics. We don’t advocate everything they do.
CONCLUSION What is the Meaning of Ephesians 5.18
So do not get drunk with wine. Getting drunk with wine leads to reckless behavior. Instead Christian, draw a sharp contrast between your behavior and behavior that characterizes the unbelieving world. This is Paul’s point all the way back from Ephesians 4:17.
We are not to live like the unbelieving world. We are to follow the command in Proverbs 23:31 Do not [even] look on the wine when it is red, …Do not even look at undiluted wine or undiluted alcoholic beverages.
Instead, we are to be filled by the Holy Spirit. We are to submit ourselves to the filling of the Holy Spirit who fills us with Christ and his glorious message of redemption that he is calling out a people for his name to inherit his eternal kingdom. And the best use of our time will not be found in partaking in the world’s, modern alcoholic beverages. The best use of our time will be living a life that is under the control of the Holy Spirit, not under the control of alcohol.
202: ‘breath of God’ is metaphor for Spirit.
Go to BibleTrove.com Home Page from What is the Meaning of Ephesians 5.18
Go to New Testament Books Page
Two articles were particularly helpful in developing some of the points of this article. Gary Reimers article “Does the Bible Condone Alcoholic Beverages?” Accessed here http://pbcpowdersville.org/site/user/files/39/Does_the_Bible_Condone_Alcoholic_Beverages.pdf. Also helpful was “A Christian Perspective on Wine-Drinking.” Bibliotheca Sacra 139, no. 553 (1982): 51.Accessed here https://www.galaxie.com/article/bsac139-553-04. ↑
Abrams, Judith Z. A Beginner’s Guide to the Steinsaltz Talmud. Northvale, N.J.: Jason Aronson, 1999. 243. ↑
Charles Hodge, vol. 3, Systematic Theology (Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1997), 617. Hodge cites Gloss in Lightfoot, Horae Hebraicae in St. Matthew 26:27, n. v. Opp. tom. ii. p. 380 as well as Scudamore, ut supra, p. 350. ↑
Natural History 14.6–54 ↑
The Deipnosophistae of Athenaeus published in Loeb Classical Library edition, Volume 1. Accessed http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Athenaeus/2A*.html#note:complete_extant_text_is_onsite ↑
Alcock, Joan P. Food in the Ancient World. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2006. 184. See also Charters, Stephen. “The History of Wine.” In Wine and Society: The Social and Cultural Context of a Drink. Amsterdam: Elsevier/Butterworth-Heinemann, 2006. ↑
Rinella, Michael A. Pharmakon: Plato, Drug Culture, and Identity in Ancient Athens. Lanham, Md.: Lexington Books, 2010. 5-6. ↑
See Gary Reimers’ article, cited above. ↑
“One would need to drink twenty-two glasses of wine in order to consume the large amount of alcohol in two martinis today.” Geisler, Norman, 51.” ↑
“Alcohol consumption is a leading preventable cause of cancer death in U.S., experts say.” Accessed here: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/02/130214194103.htm ↑
Children of alcoholics are 4-9 times more likely to be an alcoholic themselves. “Concepts and Issues in COA Research” accessed here http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/arh21-3/185.pdf ↑
“You Booze, You Lose: Even Small Amount Of Alcohol Affects Driving Skills” accessed here http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2002/09/020919065955.htm ↑
“Alcohol dulls brain ‘alarm’ that monitors mistakes, study finds” accessed here http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/09/110901135030.htm. ↑
“Do The Scriptures Prohibit The Use Of Alcoholic Beverages?”accessed here http://www.galaxie.com/article/bsac037-145-04 ↑
Mixed wine was made stronger with additions. See The Wine Question Settled by Rev. B. Parsons, 70. ↑
“Alcohol is the fifth leading risk factor for death and disability accounting for 4% of life years lost due to disease.” “Association between alcohol and cardiovascular disease: Mendelian randomisation analysis based on individual participant data” accessed here http://www.bmj.com/content/349/bmj.g4164. See also “” accessed here http://www.bmj.com/content/bmj/349/bmj.g4164.full.pdf ↑