What is the Meaning of Acts 13-14

“Opening the Door of Faith to the Gentiles”

Paul’s First Missionary Journey

Acts 13-14

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Introduction:

25 years since Pentecost. We’re into the “uttermost part of the earth” phase of Acts 1:8. Acts 13-14 contain Paul’s first missionary journey. These two chapters begin and end with Paul’s commissioning to Antioch and return to Antioch. The church in Antioch began in Acts 11.The big idea is how God opened the door of faith to the Gentiles, leading to the Jerusalem Council in Acts 15. This is how the section ends (Acts 14:27). Throughout the 2 chapters the focus is the same.

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Paul goes from Antioch in 13:1-3. In 13:4-5, he goes to the Jews. And then immediately to the Gentiles (13:6-12). To the Jews in 13:13-43 and then to the Gentiles in 13:44-52. To the Jews in 14:1-7 and then to the Gentiles in 14:8-23. And finally to Antioch.

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We can also see the fulfillment of Paul’s commission and Acts 9:15-16.

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Acts 9:15–16 15 But the Lord said to him, “Go, for he is a chosen instrument of Mine, to bear My name before the Gentiles and kings and the sons of Israel; 16 for I will show him how much he must suffer for My name’s sake.”

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Acts 13-14 in part fulfill Jesus’ commission to Paul. For indeed these things happen in these chapters.

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READ ACTS 13-14

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Outline

Acts 13

1. Commissioning at Antioch (13:1–3)

2. Contest on Cyprus (13:4–12)

a. 13:4–5: To Jews

b. 13:6–12: To Gentiles

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3. Preaching and expulsion in Pisidia (13:13–52)

a. 13:13–43: To Jews

b. 13:44–52: To Gentiles

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Acts 14

1. Success and division in Iconium (14:1–7)

a. 14:1–7: To Jews

2. Healing and stoning in Lystra (14:8–20)

b. 14:8–23: To Gentiles

3. Strengthening the disciples (14:21–28)

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Exposition

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1. Commissioning at Antioch (13:1–3)

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Acts 13:1–3 1 Now in the church that was at Antioch there were certain prophets and teachers: Barnabas, Simeon who was called Niger, Lucius of Cyrene, Manaen who had been brought up with Herod the tetrarch, and Saul. 2 As they ministered to the Lord and fasted, the Holy Spirit said, “Now separate to Me Barnabas and Saul for the work to which I have called them.” 3 Then, having fasted and prayed, and laid hands on them, they sent them away.

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[Working of the Holy Spirit, per Acts 1:8. They are moving to the ends of the earth.]

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This chapter a turning point in the book of Acts. The first 12 chapters describe the spread of the gospel from Jerusalem to Judea, and to Samaria. This chapter begins the progression of the gospel to the uttermost parts of the earth.

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Up until chapter 13, Jerusalem had been the center of ministry. And Peter was the main apostle. But now, Antioch in Syria is the center and Paul the new leader.

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And here we have five diverse men listed as prophets and teachers in the local church: Barnabas (Levite, Cyprus native; Acts 4:36, 9:27, 11:22, 30, 12:25), Simeon (a.k.a., Niger= “black” probably from North Africa), Lucius (from Cyrene), Manaen (a friend or adopted brother of Herod Antipas, thus an aristocrat. ), Saul…all these men helped ground converts in the faith.

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Note 1: A Spirit-filled church will have Spirit-filled men who can preach and teach. Spiritual men should be in leadership. Teach and live it! We must be Spirit-filled which means that we must walk according to the word of God. The more a church is walking according to the word of God the greater the degree of Holy Spirit filling. Cf. Eph. 5:18; Col. 3:16

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Note 2: The task of a Spirit-filled church is minister to the Lord/fast; spiritual ministry, not a bunch of activities. In the midst of this, the Lord will send forth teachers and disciplers into the community.

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The Holy Spirit directed the group to set apart Barnabas and Saul for a different future ministry, the ‘work’ (cf. Acts 13:2; 14:26. The ‘work’ bookends this section. God opens the door, but He calls men to do the work.).

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Question: When did the Holy Spirit do this?

Answer: While they were ministering to the Lord and fasting.

Note: direction for future ministry happens while serving the Lord now.

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“They” (the church at Antioch or the 3 other men),

  • Fasted and prayed
  • Laid their hands on them
  • Sent them away…

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2. Contest on Cyprus (13:4–12)

a. 13:4–5: To Jews

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Acts 13:4–5 4 So, being sent out by the Holy Spirit, they went down to Seleucia[1], and from there they sailed to Cyprus. 5 And when they arrived in Salamis, they preached the word of God in the synagogues of the Jews. They also had John as their assistant.

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Question: Citing verse 3 and 4, who sent them away?

Answer: Both the church/men and the Holy Spirit.

Note: When the church sent them out, the Holy Spirit sent them out.

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Check map. C:\Users\greg\Documents\Bible Documents\LectureNotes\Acts. 2nd Semester\Pauls First and Second Missionary Journeys.png

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On the island of Cyprus, in the city of Salamis, Paul, Barnabas, and John (John Mark) preached in the synagogue. John Mark is their helper (not a servant of the Lord? Is this prep for Acts 13:13?). He’s Barnabas’ cousin (Col. 4:10) who grew up in a faithful family (Acts 12:12), perhaps led to Christ by Peter (1 Pet. 5:13).

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b. 13:6–12: To Gentiles

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Note: When Spirit-filled men are doing Spirit-directed ministry, they should expect spiritual opposition.

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Acts 13:6–12 6 Now when they had gone through the island to Paphos[2], they found a certain sorcerer, a false prophet, a Jew whose name was Bar-Jesus, 7 who was with the proconsul, Sergius Paulus, an intelligent man. This man called for Barnabas and Saul and sought to hear the word of God. 8 But Elymas the sorcerer (for so his name is translated) withstood them, seeking to turn the proconsul away from the faith. 9 Then Saul, who also is called Paul, filled with the Holy Spirit, looked intently at him 10 and said, “O full of all deceit and all fraud, you son of the devil, you enemy of all righteousness, will you not cease perverting the straight ways of the Lord? 11 And now, indeed, the hand of the Lord is upon you, and you shall be blind, not seeing the sun for a time.” And immediately a dark mist fell on him, and he went around seeking someone to lead him by the hand. 12 Then the proconsul believed, when he saw what had been done, being astonished at the teaching of the Lord.

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They first go to Cyprus, Barnabas’ home (Acts 4:36) and go through the island east to west until they come to the west side of the island, to Paphos, the capital. Sergius Paulus (“smart guy”) was the “proconsul” (a chief Roman official, likely a governor of the province of Cyprus). Mr. Paulus hangs out with one Bar-Jesus (“Son of Jesus/Joshua”), a false Jewish prophet. Bar-Jesus was likely a servant to Mr. Paulus.

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Mr. Paulus wanted to hear God’s word. So, verse 7, he called for Barnabas and Saul. Bar-Jesus/Elymas is opposed to the idea and tries to get Mr. Paulus to turn away from God’s word.

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Saul/Paul rightly recognizes the spiritual warfare. Filled with the Holy Spirit, and looking intently at him, verse 10 he understands him to be the son of the devil (John 8:44), not a son of Jesus, as his name would suggest. And he inflicts blindness on the sorcerer, proving to Mr. Paulus that Paul and Barnabas are indeed God’s messengers and their message is real (miracles are signs authenticating the message and the messenger).

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The comparison and contrast between Paul and Bar-Jesus could not be more striking: both had sought to hinder the spread of the gospel, both are blinded and both must be led “by the hand.” Paul, in his efforts to imprison and persecute Christians, had been a “one-time servant of the devil” (Garrett 1989, 84). But whereas Bar-Jesus was said to “make straight paths crooked,” Paul is led to a “street called Straight” (9:11). And though Bar-Jesus is blinded by mist and darkness, Paul is blinded by a great light (22:11; 26:13). And finally, Paul’s blindness is a stage on the way to a radical reorientation of his life; Bar-Jesus is left in blindness.[3]

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Mr. Paulus was saved: verse 12…Then the proconsul believed, when? When he saw what had been done,.. why? Because he was astonished at the teaching of the Lord.

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The miracle confirmed the teaching. But he was astonished at the teaching.

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Acts 13:9: Saul didn’t just switch his name now; he was likely also called Paul before. Now, he likely began to use more of his Gentile name, seeing his mission was to the Gentiles.

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Saul has demonstrated power over Satanic forces, proving himself worthy. Paul was converted in Acts 9 and commissioned here. And so, this could be why he’s now called Paul. Paul goes from the last on the list earlier in Acts 13 to first on most lists for Paul and Barnabas, see 13:43, 46, 50; 15:2, 22, 25, 35; for Paul and other companions, see 13:13; 16:17, 25, 29; 17:4, 10). [4]

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So, this scene ends with Satan subdued and the Lord and His teaching highlighted, with a prominent convert as a ‘by the way.’

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Note: When there is opposition to the gospel, Satan is at work. But remember Eph. 6:12ff; 2 Ti. 3:8, 13.

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3. Preaching and expulsion in Pisidia (13:13–52)

[[ a. 13:13–43: To Jews

b. 13:44–52: To Gentiles]]

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a. The setting (13:13–15)

Acts 13:13–15 13 Now when Paul and his party set sail from Paphos, they came to Perga in Pamphylia; and John, departing from them, returned to Jerusalem. 14 But when they departed from Perga, they came to Antioch in Pisidia, and went into the synagogue on the Sabbath day and sat down. 15 And after the reading of the Law and the Prophets, the rulers of the synagogue sent to them, saying, “Men and brethren, if you have any word of exhortation for the people, say on.”

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John Mark departs. Sad. Why? We know Paul didn’t think kindly of this (Acts 15:36-41)

1. Homesick? Death in family? But if he had a good reason, Paul wouldn’t have thought so lowly.

2. Paul took leadership from Mark’s cousin Barnabas?

3. As a Jew, uncomfortable with Gentile mission?

4. Fear of danger moving into difficult areas? Taurus Mountains, caves occupied by robbers (“the perils of robbers”; 2 Co. 11:26?).

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Whatever it was, Paul didn’t want to work with him again (Acts 15:36-41; Acts 16:1-5). Paul later approved of John Mark (2 Tim. 4:11).

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Note: Stay the course! Don’t let your light go out! Here is a man who didn’t face the opposition well.

Note: Know that not only will there be opposition from without (Elymas), but also from within (John Mark).

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b. Paul’s sermon (13:16–41)

Paul and Barnabas are invited to speak. Paul’s sermon is recorded from Acts 13:16-41. The sermon divides up nicely when Paul directly addresses the crowd (See Acts 13:16, 26, 38). Paul is addressing both Jews and Gentiles (Acts 13:16, 26)

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1. Acts 13:16-25: God’s Work in Israel’s History: The OT

Read Acts 13:16-25 and notice God is the subject of many verbs. This is God’s action in Israel’s history. Paul proclaims that Jesus has fulfilled God’s promises to the Jewish people. Climaxes with David and then John the Baptist.

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Note: Biblical evangelism points to fulfilled prophecies (cf. Acts 2). This theme carries into the next point…

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2. Acts 13:26-37: Declaring the death, resurrection, and appearances: The NT

Similar to Peter’s message, Paul places guilt on the Jewish people for crucifying Jesus. Death, entombment, resurrection, and resurrection appearances all preached. Plus, we saw him and we are witnessing to you about it!

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Verses 32-37, the good news of the promise is proclaimed (“we declare to you the glad tidings…that promise”).

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Each of these quotes is used to argue the OT promise of resurrection. Let’s look at them closely.

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Ps. 2:7. This refers to the resurrection, not the birth. How is it that His Son could be born “today” as the Son, that is, the Son of God. He was Son of God=God from all eternity.

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Isa. 55:3. The ‘sure’ mercies of David refer to the everlasting covenant God made with him (2 Sam. 7:12-17). For the covenant to be made everlasting requires that the Messiah live forever. Death alone (Isa. 53) is not enough. It requires a rising Messiah as well.

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Ps. 16:10. David was dead and buried. This couldn’t refer to David. He saw corruption. This must refer to Jesus, God’s Messiah who died and rose again, not having seen bodily corruption.

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These prophecies show us that if you don’t know the written word of God you will not know the living Word of God, Jesus Christ. OT prophecies point to Him. If you don’t know those prophecies you will have less of an understanding and love for Him, the Christ.

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3. Application: An appeal to faith (Acts 13:38-41)

Blessings for those who believe=trust: forgiveness and justification (declared righteous).

Justification does not come from the law of Moses. This is a lead in to the next section, emphasizing Gentile conversion.

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And concludes with a warning. This is biblical preaching, obviously. Warn people of the dangers of not heeding God’s word!

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c. Gentile Reception (Acts 13:38-41)

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Acts 13:38–41 38 Therefore let it be known to you, brethren, that through this Man is preached to you the forgiveness of sins; 39 and by Him everyone who believes is justified from all things from which you could not be justified by the law of Moses. 40 Beware therefore, lest what has been spoken in the prophets come upon you: 41 ‘Behold, you despisers, Marvel and perish! For I work a work in your days, A work which you will by no means believe, Though one were to declare it to you.’ ”

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Note the Gentile reception vs. Jewish rejection. This sets us up for the Jer. Council in Acts 15.

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  • Verse 42: Jews went out, Gentiles begged. God is forming a new people of those who trust in His Son. v. 43…Some are following Paul and Barnabas
  • The whole city comes together to hear God’s word.
  • The Jews are filled with envy
  • Paul and Barnabas affirm the Jewish rejection v. 46 and turn to the Gentiles.
  • Scripture commands this in the OT … Isa. 49:6… salvation to the ends of the earth indicate the prediction of future Gentile reception.
  • Gentiles receive the word, v48. [who believes? Appointed, cf. Matt.28:16. Contrast with v. 46 and v. 39]
  • Word spreading through the whole region among Gentiles
  • Jews are against it, v. 50, stir up devout Jewish women

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We see this pattern as noted by Parsons: (1) the proclamation of the gospel, which leads to (2) division among those listening, (3) rejection by the unbelievers, (4) withdrawal by the Christian missionaries, and finally (5) Luke’s report of the progress, despite the opposition.[5]

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Shaking dust a sign of protest… to Iconium! C:\Users\greg\Documents\Bible Documents\LectureNotes\Acts. 2nd Semester\Pauls First and Second Missionary Journeys.png

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Note: When persecuted, it can be the Lord’s way of moving you somewhere else. See Acts 8:1

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Acts 14

Success and Division at Iconium (14:1-7)

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Success vv1-3

Acts 14:1–3 1 Now it happened in Iconium that they went together to the synagogue of the Jews, and so spoke that a great multitude both of the Jews and of the Greeks believed. 2 But the unbelieving Jews stirred up the Gentiles and poisoned their minds against the brethren. 3 Therefore they stayed there a long time, speaking boldly in the Lord, who was bearing witness to the word of His grace, granting signs and wonders to be done by their hands.

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As their custom is, first go to the synagogue. Contrast v. 1 with 13:48. We have a different response here. A large number of Jews and Gentiles believed. So the response is not necessarily divided along the Jew/Gentile line. However unbelieving Jews did stir up trouble by poisoning the minds of the Gentiles. And it was because of that (“therefore”) that they stayed longer and spoke boldly in the Lord. Sometimes you don’t leave when there is opposition! Here there wasn’t persecution, but simply opposition.

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Note: It takes time to unpoison minds, “they stayed there a long time.” Endurance!

Note: It also takes courage, “speaking boldly in the Lord.” We keep giving the gospel even to those who reject if, as the Lord directs. We keep discipling others, no matter how difficult.

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The Lord was doing 2 things: bearing witness to the gospel, and granting miracles to be done. Acts recounts the “Acts of the Risen Christ.”

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Note: Verse 3, all gifted is to be used with reliance on the Lord. Teaching, preaching in ch. Acts 14:3, 7, 15, 21, 22. Administration, v.23. Miracles and healing vv.3, 10. The best way to know your gifting is simply to begin actively serving the Lord. He’ll direct.

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Division vv.4-7

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Acts 14:4–7 4 But the multitude of the city was divided: part sided with the Jews, and part with the apostles. 5 And when a violent attempt was made by both the Gentiles and Jews, with their rulers, to abuse and stone them, 6 they became aware of it and fled to Lystra and Derbe, cities of Lycaonia, and to the surrounding region. 7 And they were preaching the gospel there.

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Much of the city is divided over following the unbelieving Jews or the apostles. And again it was not down ethnic lines, because both Jews and Gentiles decided to mistreat and stone them. They hear of their plan to stone them and depart to 3 groups of places .. “Lystra and Derbe, cities of Lycaonia and the surrounding region.” Lystra is not now a Lycaonian city; however it was earlier and will be later, but at the time of Luke’s writing, it is not. Thus, Luke is very accurate here, not referring to Lystra as a Lycaonian city.

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Note: Now it was time to leave (but they come back, v.21)

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Healing and stoning in Lystra (14:8–20)

C:\Users\greg\Documents\Bible Documents\LectureNotes\Acts. 2nd Semester\Pauls First and Second Missionary Journeys.png

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Acts 14:8–20 8 And in Lystra a certain man without strength in his feet was sitting, a cripple from his mother’s womb, who had never walked. 9 This man heard Paul speaking. Paul, observing him intently and seeing that he had faith to be healed, 10 said with a loud voice, “Stand up straight on your feet!” And he leaped and walked. 11 Now when the people saw what Paul had done, they raised their voices, saying in the Lycaonian language, “The gods have come down to us in the likeness of men!” 12 And Barnabas they called Zeus, and Paul, Hermes, because he was the chief speaker. 13 Then the priest of Zeus, whose temple was in front of their city, brought oxen and garlands to the gates, intending to sacrifice with the multitudes. 14 But when the apostles Barnabas and Paul heard this, they tore their clothes and ran in among the multitude, crying out 15 and saying, “Men, why are you doing these things? We also are men with the same nature as you, and preach to you that you should turn from these useless things to the living God, who made the heaven, the earth, the sea, and all things that are in them, 16 who in bygone generations allowed all nations to walk in their own ways. 17 Nevertheless He did not leave Himself without witness, in that He did good, gave us rain from heaven and fruitful seasons, filling our hearts with food and gladness.” 18 And with these sayings they could scarcely restrain the multitudes from sacrificing to them. 19 Then Jews from Antioch and Iconium came there; and having persuaded the multitudes, they stoned Paul and dragged him out of the city, supposing him to be dead. 20 However, when the disciples gathered around him, he rose up and went into the city. And the next day he departed with Barnabas to Derbe.

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This scene recalls Acts 3:1-10 when Peter heals the lame man. And it has a similar healing story: the disease stated, the cure, and reactions.

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  • Statement of the ailment (14:8)

Notice the threefold statement for emphasis: he was without strength in his feet, a cripple from birth, and one who had never walked. Could you say it another way? It’s clear; he can’t and never could walk.

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  • The miracle (14:9–10)

Parsons notes that in these verses we see two indications as to why these folks identify Paul and Barnabas as gods. First, verse nine, Paul looks directly at him. Parsons notes that the gods had a straight stare, without blinking. Paul is able to “see” the man had faith to be healed.

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Second, Paul speaks with a loud voice (v.10), as did the gods. Not to mention the miracle itself, it’s clear why they confused P+B with gods.

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Note: Paul has power; we have power (Acts 1:8). If we didn’t believe the Lord was with us (Matthew 28:20) in a powerful, why make disciples?

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Third, a story about Zeus and Hermes having visited this area before, after being rejected by the residents, found residence in the house of a couple named Philemon and Baucis.

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This is one of two times that the gospel is presented to those who are predominately Gentile (cf. Acts 17). Athens is a sophisticated, skeptical audience and here, we have the superstitious and mob-like behavior.

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Then the priest of Zeus brings out the animals for an animal sacrifice!

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  • 5 Responses (14:11–20)

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1. The crippled man believes

v. 9

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2. But the crowd interprets the miracle in light of their mythology, worshiping them

vv. 11-13

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3. The apostles rebuke and witness to the crowd

vv.14-18

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What should you do if a crowd ever attempts to offer sacrifices to you?

Step#1: Tear clothes

Step #2: run into the crowd

Step #3: cry out, “Why are you doing this? We are humans!”

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i.e., they have nothing to hide.

Note: The discipler must be humble. Point all the glory to Christ. Confess faults.

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Note here that Paul witnesses to these people based on where they are in the scale of an understanding of general revelation to special revelation. If you are witnessing to Jews, who held to the law, he would start from the Old Testament and witness to them about Christ. But since these are Gentiles, who have no knowledge of the law, he begins with general revelation in creation. Note this, it is imperative that you assess what individual people believe. If you start right in with Jesus, or sin… And the whole time, that person is an atheist for that person has major doubts about the veracity of Scripture, then you may be going about it the wrong way. Paul knew these were Gentiles and he understood their presuppositions. So should we as we speak to others. And this requires asking people questions. What do you believe about Jesus? What do you believe about the Bible, is that the word of God? What do you believe about the resurrection, do you believe Jesus was raised from the dead?

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At any rate, here, it’s clear that the miracle needs an interpretation.

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Verse 14 … Paul and Barnabas argue with them that they have the same nature as those in the crowd. Paul and Barnabas detail what they are preaching

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Turn from these useless things to the living God. That’s the main point. Repent of idolatry and turn to God.

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God is the one who made everything and who controlled all the nations, v.16, letting them go their own way. God always witnesses to them in creation by…

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Note: God’s long suffering, v.16 and His goodness to His enemies (v.17).

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  • doing good
  • giving rain, good harvests
  • filling man’s heart with food/gladness.

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Note:

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4. Jews from Antioch and Iconium arrive and persuade the crowds to stone Paul

v.19

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More than 160 km separated Antioch from Lystra, yet these persistent Jews followed Paul the whole way with no modern transportation. But they stone Paul thinking that he is dead. Perhaps he was playing dead, or knocked out, but he was not really dead.

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5. Disciples gathered around him

v.20

They gather around him and he goes straight back into the city! The gospel message will continue; the mission is not over, it’s unstoppable!

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Note: A disciple maker will be persistent! Keep after them!

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Having been strengthen by disciples, Paul will now strengthen disciples.

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The Return to Antioch : Strengthening Converts Along the Way (14:21-28)

C:\Users\greg\Documents\Bible Documents\LectureNotes\Acts. 2nd Semester\Pauls First and Second Missionary Journeys.png

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Acts 14:21–28 21 And when they had preached the gospel to that city and made many disciples, they returned to Lystra, Iconium, and Antioch, 22 strengthening the souls of the disciples, exhorting them to continue in the faith, and saying, “We must through many tribulations enter the kingdom of God.” 23 So when they had appointed elders in every church, and prayed with fasting, they commended them to the Lord in whom they had believed. 24 And after they had passed through Pisidia, they came to Pamphylia. 25 Now when they had preached the word in Perga, they went down to Attalia. 26 From there they sailed to Antioch, where they had been commended to the grace of God for the work which they had completed. 27 Now when they had come and gathered the church together, they reported all that God had done with them, and that He had opened the door of faith to the Gentiles. 28 So they stayed there a long time with the disciples.

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Paul preaches the gospel in Derbe and makes many disciples. Then the team travels back to Antioch through all the cities they just preached in.

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They had certain tasks as they went. They preached the gospel.

They strengthen disciples by exhorting them to continue in the faith. Tell them that they will experience tribulation/persecution… but they weren’t to let that keep them from continuing in the faith.

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Note: With those that you minister to, follow up with them.

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Two main ways to follow up.

1. Strengthen souls by encouraging them to continue, v22. Requires teaching them about joys of continuing, promises fulfilled, dangers of leaving faith. Confront problems, issues.

2. Leading them, v.23. Appoint elders, prayer/fasting

They also appointed elders in every church. They organized church life. This could mean that they appointed multiple elders in every church gathering or they appointed multiple elders in the churches in each city, because often the church is viewed in reference to the city; like the church in Philippi. This was likely the type of selection in Acts 6.

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Appointed: by an election of raise of hands or appointment? Could go either way, Kent argues for raise of hands. 1. There are other words for appoint. 2. The only other New Testament use of this exact verb is a congregational selection 2 Corinthians 8:19

3. Commending them to the Lord. He’s in charge, you’re not. Do you part, leave the rest to Him.

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Follow vv. 24-26 on map.

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Finally Vv.27-28 they reported on their ministry to their sending church. This is a kind of missionary report. Point of chapter 13-14? The Lord opened the door of faith to the Gentiles.

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Go to BibleTrove.com Home Page from What is the Meaning of Acts 13-14

Go to New Testament Books Page

Go to Acts Main Page

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  1. five miles north of the mouth of the Orontes River and 15 miles from Antioch

  2. Paphos was “famous for its temple, dedicated originally to the Syrian goddess Astarte, worshiped (according to Tacitus) with ancient Phoenician rites involving anointing of a conical (meteorite?) stone. The Greeks identified her with Aphrodite, claiming she sprang from the sea.” Thankfully, Luke spares us the immoral details of this city.

  3. Mikeal C. Parsons, Acts, Paideia Commentaries on The New Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2008), 190.

  4. Ibid.

  5. Mikeal C. Parsons, Acts, Paideia Commentaries on The New Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2008), 197.

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